Above-the-line: In Marketing, relating to marketing expenditure on advertising in media such as press, radio, television, cinema, and the World Wide Web, on which a commission is usually paid to an agency.
Absorbed business: A company that has been merged into another company.
Absorbed costs: The indirect costs associated with manufacturing, for example, insurance or property taxes.
Absorption costing: An accounting practice in which fixed and variable costs of production are absorbed by different cost centers.
Abusive tax shelter: A tax shelter that somebody claims illegally to avoid or minimize tax
Accelerated cost recovery system: A system used in computing the depreciation of some assets acquired before 1986 in a way that reduces taxes.
Accelerated depreciation: A system used for computing the depreciation of some assets in a way that assumes that they depreciate faster in the early years of their acquisition.
Accelerator: Business accelerators and incubators are programs designed to assist startup businesses with financial and/or operational resources that will increase their chance of growth and success.
Access bond: A type of mortgage that permits borrowers to take out loans against extra capital paid into the account, home-loan interest rates being lower than interest rates on other forms of credit.
Account: A record of a business transaction. A contract arrangement, written or unwritten, to purchase and take delivery with payment to be made later as arranged.
Accounting cost: The cost of maintaining and checking the business records of a person or organization and the preparation of forms and reports for financial purposes.
Accounting insolvency: A the condition that a company is in when its liabilities to its creditors exceeds its assets.
Account balance: The difference between the debit and the credit sides of an account.
Accountant: One who is skilled at keeping business records. Usually, a highly trained professional rather than one who keeps books. An accountant can set up the books needed for a business to operate and help the owner understand them.
Accounting period: A time interval at the end of which an analysis is made of the information contained in the bookkeeping records. Also the period of time covered by the profit and loss statement.
Accounts payable: Money which you owe to an individual or business for goods or services that have been received but not yet paid for.
Accounting rate of return: The ratio of profit before interest and taxation to the percentage of capital employed at the end of a period. Variations include using profit after interest and taxation, equity capital employed, and average capital for the period.
Accounts receivable: Money owed to your business for goods or services that have been delivered but not yet paid for.
Accounts receivable factoring: The buying of accounts receivable at a discount with the aim of making a profit from collecting them.
Accrual basis: A method of keeping accounts that shows expenses incurred and income earned for a given fiscal period, even though such expenses and income have not been actually paid or received in cash.
Actuary: A professional expert in pension and life insurance matters, particularly trained in mathematical, statistical, and accounting methods and procedures, and in insurance probabilities.
Administrative expense: Expenses chargeable to the managerial, general administrative and policy phases of a business in contrast to sales, manufacturing, or cost of goods expense.
Advertising: The practice of bringing to the public's notice the good qualities of something in order to induce the public to buy or invest in it.
Agent: A person who is authorized to act for or represent another person in dealing with a third party.
Alt Tags: A means for creating text for images by describing in words what a picture depicts.
Amortization: To liquidate on an installment basis; the process of gradually paying off a liability over a period of time.
Analysis: Breaking an idea or problem down into its parts; a thorough examination of the parts of anything.
Angel investors: Individuals who have capital that they are willing to risk. Angels are often successful entrepreneurs who invest in emerging entrepreneurial ventures, often as a bridge from the self-funded stage to the point in which a business can attract venture capital.
Annual report: The yearly report made by a company at the close of the fiscal year, stating the company's receipts and disbursements, assets and liabilities.
Appraisal: Evaluation of a specific piece of personal or real property. The value placed on the property evaluated.
Appreciation: The increase in the value of an asset in excess of its depreciable cost due to economic and other conditions, as distinguished from increases in value due to improvements or additions made to it.
Arrears: Amounts past due and unpaid.
Articles of Incorporation: A legal document filed with the state that sets forth the purposes and regulations for a corporation. Each state has different regulations.
Assets: Items of value owned by a company and shown on the balance sheet, including cash, equipment, inventory, etc.
Audiotaping: The act of recording onto an audiotape.
Audit: An examination of accounting documents and of supporting evidence for the purpose of reaching an informed opinion concerning their propriety.
Back-to-back loan: An arrangement in which two companies in different countries borrow offsetting amounts in each other's currency and each repays it at a specified future date in its domestic currency. Such a loan, often between a company and its foreign subsidiary, eliminates the risk of loss from exchange rate fluctuations.
Back office: The administrative staff of a company who do not have face-to-face contact with the company's customers.
Back pay: Pay that is owed to an employee for work carried out before the current payment period and is either overdue or results from a backdated pay increase.
Backup: A period in which bond yields rise and prices fall, or a sudden reversal in a stock market trend.
Bad debts: Money owed to you that cannot be collected.
Balance: The amount of money remaining in an account.
Balanced budget: A budget in which planned expenditure on goods and services and debt income can be met by current income from taxation and other central government receipts.
Balanced investment strategy: A strategy of investing in a variety of types of companies and financial instruments to reduce the risk of loss through poor performance of any one type.
Balance of payments: A list of a country's credit and debit transactions with international financial institutions and foreign countries in a specific period.
Balance of trade: The difference between a country's exports and imports of goods and services.
Balance sheet: An itemized statement that lists the total assets and total liabilities of a given business to portray its net worth at a given moment in time.
Ballpark: An informal term for a rough, estimated figure. The term was derived from the approximate assessment of the number of spectators that might be made on the basis of a glance around at a sporting event.
Bank account reconciliation: Comparing and matching your checkbook balance with your bank balance.
Bank card: A plastic card issued by a bank and accepted by merchants in payment for transactions. The most common types are credit cards and debit cards, although smart cards have been introduced. Bank cards are governed by an internationally recognized set of rules for the authorization of their use and the clearing and settlement of transactions.
Banker's draft: A bill of exchange payable on demand and drawn by one bank on another. Regarded as being equivalent to cash, the draft cannot be returned unpaid.
Bank guarantee: A commitment made by a bank to a foreign buyer that the bank will pay an exporter for goods shipped if the buyer defaults.
Bank statement: A monthly statement of account which a bank renders to each of its depositors.
Bankruptcy: The condition of being unable to pay debts, with liabilities greater than assets.
Barren money: Money that is unproductive because it is not invested.
Benchmarking: Rating your company's products, services and practices against those of the front-runners in the industry.
Bill of entry: A statement of the nature and value of goods to be imported or exported prepared by the shipper and presented to a customhouse.
Bill of lading: A statement of the nature and value of goods being transported, especially by ship, along with the conditions applying to their transportation. Drawn up by the carrier, this document serves as a contract between the owner of the goods and the carrier.
Bill of sale: Formal legal document that conveys title to or interest in specific property from the seller to the buyer.
Black market: An illegal market, usually for goods that are in short supply. Black market trading breaks government regulations or legislation and is particularly prevalent during times of shortage, such as rationing, or in industries that are very highly regulated, such as pharmaceuticals or armaments.
Blog: An abbreviation for Web log, an online journal or newsletter that is frequently updated and intended for public consumption. Usually presented in reverse chronological order, blogs are published using software (such as that available from www.blogger.com) that can be used by writers with little or no technical background.
Board of directors: Those individuals selected to sit on an authoritative standing committee or governing body, taking responsibility for the management of an organization. Members of the board of directors are officially chosen by the shareholders, but in practice they are usually selected on the basis of the current board's recommendations. The board usually includes major shareholders as well as directors of the company.
Board of Trustees: A committee or governing body that takes responsibility for managing, and holds in trust, funds, assets, or property belonging to others, for example, charitable or pension funds or assets.
Bookkeeping: The process of recording business transactions into the accounting records. The "books" are the documents in which the records of transactions are kept.
Bottom line: The figure that reflects company profitability on the income statement. The bottom line is the profit after all expenses and taxes have been paid.
Brand name: A term, symbol, design or combination thereof that identifies and differentiates a seller's products or service.
Break-even: The point of business activity when total revenue equals total expenses. Above the break-even point, the business is making a profit. Below the break-even point, the business is incurring a loss.
Bridge finance: Short-term finance that is expected to be repaid quickly.
Browser: A computer program that enables users to access and navigate the World Wide Web.
Budget: An estimate of the income and expenditures for a future period of time, usually one year.
Burn rate: The speed per month at which startup capital is being used up before it is able to have positive cash flow. This includes everything that the business will outlay money for (wages, marketing, utilities, supplies, licensing, professional fees, computers, etc.).
Business accelerator: Programs designed to assist startup businesses with financial and/or operational resources that will increase their chance of growth and success.
Business plan: A written document detailing a proposed venture, covering current status, expected needs, and projected results for the enterprise. It contains a thorough analysis of the product or service being offered, the market and competition, the marketing strategy, the operating plan, and the management as well as profit, balance sheet, and cash flow projections.
Business profile: A concise definition and description of your intended business and how you plan to go about it.
Business venture: Taking financial risks in a commercial enterprise.
Capital: Cash or goods used to generate income. For entrepreneurs, capital often refers to the funds and other assets invested in the business venture.
Capital account: The sum of a company's capital at a particular time.
Capital allowance: The tax advantage that a company is granted for money that it spends on fixed assets.
Capital appreciation: The increase in a company's or individual's wealth.
Capital asset: An asset that is difficult to sell quickly, for example, real estate.
Capital budget: A budget for the use of a company's money.
Capital controls: Regulations placed by a government on the amount of capital residents may hold.
Capital equipment: Equipment that you use to manufacture a product, provide a service or use to sell, store and deliver merchandise. Such equipment will not be sold in the normal course of business, but will be used and worn out or consumed in the course of business.
Capital gains (and losses): The financial gain made upon the disposal of an asset. The gain is the difference between the cost of its acquisition and net proceeds upon its sale.
Capital goods: Stocks of physical or financial assets that are capable of generating income.
Capital inflow: The amount of capital that flows into an economy from services rendered abroad.
Capitalism: An economic and social system in which individuals can maximize profits because they own the means of production.
Capitalist: An investor of capital in a business.
Capitalization: The amount of money invested in a company or the worth of the bonds and stocks of a company.
Cash: Money in hand or readily available.
Cash basis of accounting: Method of accounting in which you recognize income when you receive the cash and expense when you receive the bill.
Cash discount: A deduction that is given for prompt payment of a bill.
Cash flow: The difference between the company's cash receipts and its cash payments in a given period. It refers to the amount of money actually available to make purchases and pay current bills and obligations.
Cash flow statement: A summary of a company's cash flow over a period of time.
Cash receipts: The money received by a business from customers.
Category killer: Large discount chains with powerful buying power and efficiencies of scale.
Centralization: the gathering together, at a corporate headquarters, of specialist functions such as finance, personnel and information technology. Centralization is usually undertaken in order to affect economies of scale and to standardize operating procedures throughout the organization.
Certificate: A document representing partial ownership of a company that states the number of shares that the document is worth and the names of the company and the owner of the shares.
Certificate of insurance: Your landlord will require you to furnish this as proof of your insurance coverage.
Certified Public Accountant (CPA): An accountant to whom a state has given a certificate showing that he has met prescribed requirements designed to insure competence on the part of the public practitioner in accounting and that he is permitted to use the designation Certified Public Accountant, commonly abbreviated as CPA.
Chamber of Commerce: An organization of business people designed to advance the interests of its members. There are three levels: national, state and local.
Change management: A term used to describe the need for flexibility and innovation management. It can be defined in this context as the ability to adjust to changing conditions to continue on the path to business fruition.
Chief Executive: The person with overall responsibility for ensuring that the daily operations of an organization run efficiently and for carrying out strategic plans. The chief executive of an organization normally sits on the board of directors. In a limited company, the chief executive is usually known as a managing director.
Chief Executive Officer (CEO): The highest ranking executive officer within a company or corporation, who has responsibility for over-all management of its day-to-day affairs under the supervision of the board of directors.
Chief Financial Officer (CFO): The officer of the organization responsible for handling finds, signing checks, the keeping of financial records, and financial planning of the company.
Choice: A decision to purchase that is based on an evaluation of alternatives.
Clicks and brick: A business strategy that involves combining the traditional retail outlets with online commerce.
Client retention: Practices that businesses engage in to retain their customer base after the sale has been made.
Close-end credit: A loan, plus any interest and finance charges, that is to be repaid in full by a specified future date. Loans that have real estate or motor vehicles as collateral are usually closed-end.
Co-signers: Joint signers of a loan agreement who pledge to meet the obligations of a business in case of default.
Collateral: An asset pledged as security for a loan.
Commercial paper: Uncollateralized loans obtained by companies, usually on a short-term basis.
Commission: A percentage of the principal or of the income that an agent receives as compensation for services.
Commodity business: A business for which you must have the lowest cost to survive.
Common Area Maintenance (CAM): Expenses which are assessed to tenants.
Contract: An agreement regarding mutual responsibilities between two or more parties.
Controllable expenses: Those expenses that can be controlled or restrained by the business person.
Copyright: A form of legal protection for published and unpublished literary, scientific, and artistic works that have been fixed in a tangible or material form. It grants exclusive rights to the work's creator for a specified period of time.
Corporation: A voluntary organization of persons, either actual individuals or legal entities, legally bound together to form a business enterprise. A corporation is an artificial legal entity created by government grant and treated by law as an individual entity.
Cost of goods sold: The direct cost to the business owner of those items which will be sold to customers.
Coworking: A style of work which involves shared office space yet independent activity. Unlike in a typical office, those coworking are usually not employed by the same organization.
Coworking space: The environment in which coworking takes place. Most coworking spaces are business incubators and accelerators.
Credit: Another word for debt. Credit is given to customers when they are allowed to make a purchase with the promise to pay later. A bank gives credit when it lends money.
Debt: That which is owed. Debt refers to borrowed funds and is generally secured by collateral or a co-signer.
Debt capital: The part of the investment capital that must be borrowed. Also, the failure to pay a debt or meet an obligation.
Deficit: The excess of liabilities over assets; a negative net worth.
Deficit financing: The borrowing of money because expenditures will exceed receipts.
Deficit spending: Government spending financed by borrowing rather than taxation.
Deflation: A reduction in the general level of prices sustained over several months, usually accompanied by declining employment and output.
Demographic report: Population statistics based on United States census data.
Depreciation: A decrease in value through age, wear or deterioration. Depreciation is a normal expense of doing business that must be taken into account. There are laws and regulations governing the manner and time periods that may be used for depreciation.
Desktop publishing: Commonly used term for computer-generated printed materials such as newsletters and brochures.
Devaluation: A reduction in the official fixed rate at which one currency exchanges for another under a fixed-rate regime, usually to correct a balance of payments deficit.
Development capital: Finance for the expansion of an established company.
Differentiated marketing: Selecting and developing a number of offerings to meet the needs of a number of specific market segments.
Direct cost: A variable cost directly attributable to production. Items that are classed as direct cost include materials used, labor deployed, and marketing budget, and amounts spent will vary with output.
Direct mail: Marketing goods or services directly to the consumer through the mail. The use of direct mail is often administered by third-party companies that own databases containing not only names and addresses, but also social, economic, and lifestyle information.
Direct selling: The process whereby the producer sells to the user, ultimate consumer or retailer without intervening middlemen such as wholesalers, retailers, or brokers.
Dirty price: The price of a debt instrument that includes the amount of accrued interest that has not yet been paid.
Discount: A deduction from the stated or list price of a product or service in relation to the standard price. A discount is a selling technique to encourage customers to buy and is offered for a variety of reasons: for buying in quantity or for repeat buying; as a special offer to move a slow-moving line or for paying by cash, etc.
Distribution channel: All of the individuals and organizations involved in the process of moving products from producer to consumer. The route a product follows as it moves from the original grower, producer or importer to the ultimate consumer.
Distributor: Middleman, wholesaler, agent or company distributing goods to dealers or companies.
Doing Business As (DBA): Refers to the trade name used by the company to conduct or promote business.
Due diligence: The overall process of evaluating a business opportunity including examination of financial records.
Earnings: A sum of money gained from employment, usually quoted before tax, including extra reward such as fringe benefits, allowances, or incentives. In business, income or profit from a business, quoted gross or net of tax, which may be retained and distributed in part to the shareholders.
eBay: The largest of the online auction houses.
E-business: The conduct of business on the Internet, including the electronic purchasing and selling of goods and services, servicing customers, and communications with business partners.
E-commerce: The exchange of goods, information, products, or services via an electronic medium such as the Internet.
Enterprise: A venture characterized by innovation, creativity, dynamism, and risk. An enterprise can consist of one project, or may refer to an entire organization.
Entrepreneur: An innovator of business enterprise who recognizes opportunities to introduce a new product, a new process or an improved organization, and who raises the necessary money, assembles the factors for production and organizes an operation to exploit the opportunity.
Entrepreneur advisor: A person or organization with the experience base and educational knowledge necessary to guide an entrepreneur from concept through business fruition.
Enrollment Agent (EA): Type of accountant who must pass a taxation test administered by the IRS.
Equal opportunities: The granting of equal rights. privileges, and status regardless of gender, age, race, religion, disability, or sexual orientation. Equality in employment is regulated by law in most Western countries.
Equipment: Physical property of a more or less permanent nature ordinarily useful in carrying on operations, other than land, buildings or improvements to either of them. Examples are machinery, tools, tracks, cars, ships, furniture and furnishings.
Equity: A financial investment in a business. An equity investment carries with it a share of ownership of the business, a stake in the profits and a say in how it is managed. Equity is calculated by subtracting the liabilities of the business from the assets of the business.
Equity capital: Money furnished by owners of the business.
Ergonomics: The study of workplace design and the physical and psychological impact it has on workers. Ergonomics is about the fit between people, their work activities, equipment, work systems, and environment to ensure that workplaces are safe, comfortable, efficient, and that productivity is not compromised.
Estoppel certificate: A lease document will provide that a business agrees (now and in the future) to verify the terms of its lease.
Exchange: The process by which two or more parties give something of value to one another to satisfy needs and wants.
Exchange controls: The regulations by which a country's banking system controls its residents' or resident companies' dealings in foreign currencies and gold.
Exchange rate: The rate at which one country's currency can be exchanged for that of another.
Excise duty: A tax on goods such as alcohol or tobacco produced and sold within a particular country.
Expense account: Amount of money that an employee or group of employees can draw on to reclaim personal expenses incurred in carrying out activities for an organization.
Expenses: Personal costs incurred by an employee in carrying out activities for an organization that are reimbursed by the employer.
Export agent: An intermediary who acts on behalf of a company to open up or develop a market in a foreign country.
Exporting: The process of selling goods to other countries.
Facsimile Machine (FAX): Machine capable of transmitting written input via telephone lines.
Factor: A variable investigated in a statistical study.
FAQ: Frequently asked questions.
Feasibility study: An investigation into a proposed plan or project to determine whether and how it can be successfully and profitably carried out.
Federal funds: Deposits held in reserve by the Federal Reserve System.
Feedback: The communication of responses and reactions to proposals and changes or to the findings of performance appraisals with the aim of enabling improvements to be made.
Finance: the money needed by an individual or company to pay for something, for example, a project or stocks.
Financial statements: Documents that show your financial situation.
First In, First Out (FIFO): A method of inventory control where the stock of a given product first placed in store is used before more recently produced or acquired goods or materials.
Fiscal: Relating to financial matters, especially in respect to government collection, use. and regulation of money through taxation.
Fixed asset: A long term asset of a business such as a machine or building that will not usually be traded.
Fixed expenses: Those costs which do not vary from one period to the next. Generally, these expenses are not affected by the volume of business.
Float: The period between the presentation of a check as payment and the actual payment to the payee.
Floating rate: An interest rate that is not fixed and which changes according to fluctuations in the market
Floor: A lower limit on an interest rate, price, or the value of an asset.
Flow chart: A graphic representation of the stages in a process or system or the steps required to solve a problem.
Forecast: A prediction of the value of a variable in a statistical study.
Forward pricing: The establishment of the price of a share in a mutual fund based on the next asset valuation.
Forward rate: An estimate of what an interest rate will be at a specified future time.
Franchise: An agreement enabling a third party to sell or provide products or services owned by a manufacturer or supplier. The franchise is regulated by a franchise contract, or franchise agreement, that specifies the terms and conditions of the franchise.
Franchise chain: A number of retail outlets operating the same franchise. A franchise chain may vary in size from a few to many thousands of outlets and in coverage from a small local area to worldwide.
Fraud: The use of dishonesty, deception, or false representation in order to gain a material advantage or to injure the interest of others.
Fraudulent Advisor: A person or organization that willfully seeks to take advantage of an inexperienced entrepreneur.
Freebie: A product or service that is given away, often as a business promotion.
Free enterprise: The trade carried on in a free-market economy, where resources are allocated on the basis of supply and demand.
Free market: A market in which supply and demand are unregulated except by the country's competition policy, and rights in physical and intellectual property are upheld.
Fulfillment: The process of responding to customer inquiries, orders, or sales promotion offers.
Future: A contract to deliver a commodity at a future date.
Futures market: A market for buying and selling securities, commodities, or currencies that tend to fluctuate in price over a period of time. The market's aim is to reduce the risk of uncertainty about future prices.
Fundraising: Events staged to raise revenue.
Gap analysis: A marketing technique used to identify gaps in market or product coverage. In gap analysis, consumer information or requirements are tabulated and matched to product categories in order to identify product or service opportunities or gaps in product planning.
Gateway: A point where two or more computer networks meet and can exchange data.
Globalization: The process of tailoring products or services to different local markets around the world.
Gross profit: The difference between the selling price and the cost of an item. Gross profit is calculated by subtracting cost of goods sold from net sales.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Gross domestic product, the total flow of services and goods produced by an economy over a quarter or a year, measured by the aggregate value of services and goods at market prices.
Gross National Products (GNP): Gross National Product, GDP plus domestic resident's income from investment abroad less income earned in the domestic market accruing to noncitizens abroad.
Growth capital: Funding that allows a company to accelerate its growth. For new startup companies, growth capital is the second stage of funding after seed money.
Growth rate: The rate of an economy's growth as measured by its technical progress, the growth of its labor, and the increase in its capital stock.
Guarantee: A pledge by a third party to repay a loan in the event that the borrower defaults.
Guarantor: A person or organization that guarantees repayment of a loan if the borrower defaults or is unable to pay.
Guerilla marketing: A marketing technique, the aim of which is to damage the market share of competitors.
Hard sell: A heavily persuasive and highly pressured approach used to sell a product or service.
Hedge fund: A mutual fund that takes considerable risks, including heavy investment in unconventional instruments, in the hope of generating great profits.
High end: Relating to the most expensive, most advanced, or most powerful in a range of things, for example, computers.
High-pressure: A selling technique in which the sales representative attempts to persuade a buyer very forcefully and persistently.
Holding company: A parent organization that owns and controls other companies.
Hollow corporation: A business in which important elements are outsourced to subcontractors.
Home-based business: A business, of any size or type, whose primary office is in the owner's home.
Home page: The "table of contents" to a website, detailing what pages are on a particular site. The first page one sees when accessing a website.
Horizontal integration: The merging of functions or organizations that operate on a similar level. Horizontal integration involves the union of companies producing the same kinds of goods or operating at the same stage of the supply chain.
HR department: Human resources department including payroll functions and training.
HTML: Hypertext markup language. The common language of the Internet.
Hyperinflation: very rapid growth in the rate of inflation so that money loses value and physical goods replace currency as a medium of exchange.
Impaired capital: A company's capital that is worth less than the par value of its stock.
Import: A product or service brought into another country from its country of origin either for sale or for use in manufacturing.
Incentive program: An award or reward scheme designed to improve sales force or retail performance.
Income redistribution: A government policy that seeks to restrain increases in wages or prices by regulating the permitted level of increase.
Income statement: A financial document that shows how much money (revenue) came in and how much money (expense) was paid out.
Income tax: A tax levied directly on the income of a person or a company and paid to the local, state, or federal government.
Incubator: A business incubator is mentorship-based workspace where coaching and support services are provided to entrepreneurs and early-stage businesses at a free or reduced cost.
Indirect channel: The selling and distribution of products to customers through intermediaries such as wholesalers, distributors, agents, dealers, or retailers.
Indirect cost: A fixed or overhead cost that cannot be attributed directly to the production of a particular item and is incurred even when there is no output.
Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA): Also known as a 401K. A tool for retirement planning.
Inflation: A sustained increase in a country's general level of prices that devalues its currency, often caused by excess demand in the economy.
Infomercial: A television or cinema commercial that includes helpful information about a product as well as advertising content.
Initial public offering (IPO): The first instance of making particular shares available for sale to the public.
Insolvency: The inability to pay debts when they become due. Insolvency will apply even if total assets exceed total liabilities, if those assets cannot be readily converted into cash to meet debts as they mature.
Insurance: An arrangement in which individuals or companies pay another company to guarantee them compensation if they suffer loss resulting from risks such as fire, theft, or accidental damage.
Intangible assets: Items of value that have no tangible physical properties, such as ideas.
Intellectual Assets: The knowledge, experience and skills that have been obtained, preserved, catalogued and made available for sharing.
Intellectual property: The ownership of rights to ideas, designs, and inventions, including copyrights, patents, and trademarks. Intellectual property is protected by law in most countries, and the World Intellectual Property Organization is responsible for harmonizing the law across different countries and promoting protection of intellectual property rights.
Interest: The rate that a lender charges for the use of money that is a loan.
Interest rate: The amount of interest charged for borrowing a particular sum of money over a specified period of time.
International Monetary Fund (IMF): The organization that industrialized nations have established to reduce trade barriers and stabilize currencies, especially those of less industrialized nations.
Internal controls: What is needed to avoid losses in the handling of funds—either cash, checks or credit cards.
Internet: The vast collection in inter-connected networks that provide electronic mail and access to the World Wide Web.
Inventory: A list of assets being held for sale, The stock of finished goods, raw materials, andwork in progress held by a company.
Invest: To lay out money for any purpose from which a profit is expected.
Investment: The spending money on stocks, shares, and other securities, or on assets such as plant and machinery.
Invisible exports: The profits, dividends, interest, and royalties received from selling a country's services abroad.
Invoice: a document that a supplier sends to a customer detailing the cost of products or services supplied and requesting payment.
Joint account: An account, for example, one held at a bank or by a broker, that two or more people own in common and have access to.
Joint ownership: Ownership by more than one party, each with equal rights in the item owned. Joint ownership is often applied to property or other assets.
Joint venture: A legal entity created by two or more businesses joining together to conduct a specific business enterprise with both parties sharing profits and losses.
Junk bond: A bond with high return and high risk.
Just-in-time: The controlling of inventory so that materials are delivered just in time for assembly or manufacture.
Keystone: Setting a retail price at twice the wholesale price.
Labor force: People of working age who are available for paid employment, including the unemployed looking for work, but excluding categories such as full-time students, careers, and the long-term sick and disabled.
Lapse: The termination of an option without trade in the underlying security or commodity.
Law of diminishing returns: A rule stating that as one factor of production is increased while others remain constant, the extra output generated by the additional input will eventually fall. The law of diminishing returns therefore means that extra workers, extra capital, extra machinery, or extra land may not necessarily raise output as much as expected.
Lemon: A product, especially a car, that is defective in some way.
Letter of agreement: A document that constitutes a simple form of contract.
Letter of credit: A letter issued by a bank that can be presented to another bank to authorize the issue of credit or money.
Leverage: A method of corporate funding in which a higher proportion of